n African continent, North Africa is the north most regions. It is attached with the Sahara Desert
. Geo politically the United Nations description to Northern Africa contains eight countries; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western Sahara. Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and also Mauritania are the Maghreb while Egypt and Sudan are referred to as Nile Valley. Egypt is a transcontinental country by virtue of the Sinai Peninsula, which is in Asia. North Africa also includes a number of Spanish belongings, Ceuta and Melilla. The Canary Islands and the Portuguese Madeira Islands, in the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of the African mainland, are sometimes included in concerns of the region.
A brief list of Northern countries is as follows;
• Sudan Tunisia
• Western Sahara
The distinction between Northern Africa and the rest of Africa is historically and ecologically significant because of the effective barrier created by the Sahara. Throughout history this barrier has culturally separated the North from the rest of Africa and, as the seafaring civilizations of the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans and others facilitated communication and migration across the Mediterranean, the cultures of North Africa became much more closely tied to Southwestern Asia and Europe than Sub-Saharan Africa. The Islamic influence in the area is significant, and North Africa, along with the Middle East, is a major part of the Arab World.
Some researchers have postulated that North Africa, and not East or South Africa, was the original home of the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent.
The Atlas Hills, which expand all around much of Morocco, to the north Algeria and Tunisia, are part of the fold mountain system which also runs through much of Southern Europe. They diminish to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert which covers more than 75% of the region. The sediments of the Sahara overlie an ancient plateau of crystalline rock, some of which is more than four billion years old.
Protected valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile valley and delta, and the Mediterranean and beyond coast are the main sources of good farming land. A wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are produced. Common med crops such as olives, figs, dates and citrus fruits also thrive in these areas. The Nile valley is particularly fertile, and most of the population in Egypt and Sudan lives close to the river. Elsewhere, watering is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins. Algeria and Western Sahara (Berber French) and Tunisia (proper French) are French speaking countries. Since Africa as a continent has long been invaded by many different colonizers, there is no single dominant language in the area. But if you consider the entire African continent on a whole, then you will find that French is the major language spoken.
When we speak of North Africa strictly, the primary language is Arabic and the primary religion is Islam. The region is predominantly divided between Saharans and Berbers, due to African history. Here are some more interesting facts about the various countries.
Algeria, which gained independence in 1962, happens to be the second largest country in Africa with an area of more than 2 million km2.
More than 90% of Libya, which gained independence in 1951, is just desert or semi-desert area.
Morocco is present at the confluence of the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean.
A majority of the area in Western Sahara is occupied by Morocco, which gained independence in 1956.
There is much more to learn about the various countries, and the information provided here is merely the tip of the iceberg. The history and the culture of the region can only be understood by studying it in intense detail, but this is truly one of the most interesting and awe-inspiring regions of the African continent.